The first diagram outlines the steps and equipment involved in the production of cement, while the second diagram illustrates how cement is combined with other ingredients to make the building material concrete. According to the diagrams, both processes appear to require relatively readily-available raw ingredients, and employ fairly rudimentary technological processes and equipment.
The cement-making process begins with the mixing of two raw ingredients: limestone and clay, which are tipped at an angle from separate directions towards each other onto a crusher (two rollers aligned parallel alongside each other and rotating in opposite directions). The result is a fine powdered mixture, which is subsequently put through a tubular rotating mixer in order to ensure a more consistent mixture. The powder is then piped into a type of cylindrical furnace that rotates at an angle so that the heated powder slides along the inside surface and out the other end onto a conveyor belt. At the end of the conveyor, the dried mixture is crushed again through a grinder, similar in design to the aforementioned crusher, to form cement. The cement is finally packed into bags for sale.
Concrete is produced by mixing 15% cement, 10% water, 25% sand and 50% gravel (small stones) inside a slowly-rotating large metal container called a concrete mixer. The concrete is then poured into prepared spaces and allowed to set to make walls, floors, steps, and so on of buildings.